Utqiagvik sits at the very tip of the United States, saddled against the Arctic Ocean.
Conservation scientist Dr. Krissa Skogen specializes in the pollination biology of evening primrose flowers that grow in the American West. But in December her work took her to a starkly different location: she was among the largest-ever all-women delegation to Antarctica.
Everything depends on how the ice behaves
US Navy submarines have a long history of operations in the Arctic, including under the ice that covers much of the region. Surfacing through that ice is a common feature of submarine exercises up there, but even with that experience, it's still a tricky maneuver.
New pathways and new and more distant places are leading to additional scientific findings on impacts of melting Arctic ice.