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The holotype specimen of Daihua sanqiong. Credit: Yang Zhao

Half-a-billion-year-old fossil reveals the origins of comb jellies

One of the ocean's little known carnivores has been allocated a new place in the evolutionary tree of life after scientists discovered its unmistakable resemblance with other sea-floor dwelling creatures.

Comb jellies occupy a pivotal place in the history of animal evolution with some arguing that they were among the first animals to evolve. Now an international team of palaeontologists have found fossil evidence that proves comb jellies are related to ancestors that sat on the sea floor with polyp-like tentacles.

As reported today in Current Biology, researchers from the University of Bristol, Yunnan University in China and London's Natural History Museum, compared a 520 million-year-old fossil with fossils of a similar skeletal structure and found that all evolved from the same ancestors.

The fossil, set in a yellow and olive coloured mudstone and resembling a flower, was found in outcrops south of Kunming in the Yunnan Province, South China by Professor Hou Xianguang, co-author of the study.

Several amazingly preserved fossils have been unearthed from outcrops scattered among rice fields and farmlands in this part of tropical China in the last three decades.

It has been named Daihua after the Dai tribe in Yunnan and the Mandarin word for flower 'Hua', a cup-shaped organism with 18 tentacles surrounding its mouth. On the tentacles are fine feather-like branches with rows of large ciliary hairs preserved.

Half-a-billion-year-old fossil reveals the origins of comb jellies
, which helped the authors place the fossils on the comb jelly stem lineage. Credit: Jakob VintherDaihuaA close-up of the rows of cilia on

"When I first saw the fossil, I immediately noticed some features I had seen in comb jellies," said Dr. Jakob Vinther, a molecular palaeobiologist from the University of Bristol. "You could see these repeated dark stains along each tentacle that resembles how comb jelly combs fossilise. The fossil also preserves rows of cilia, which can be seen because they are huge. Across the Tree of Life, such large ciliary structures are only found in comb jellies."

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